En este artículo, Jorge Castañer Plá comparte su visión sobre los proyectos de absorción del MITECO (Ministerio para la Transición Ecológica y el Reto Demográfico) correspondientes al Registro de huella de carbono, compensación y proyectos de absorción de dióxido de carbono (Calculo, Reduzco, Compenso), para la mitigación del cambio climático.  El autor ofrece algunas sugerencias y recomendaciones para  que estos proyectos beneficien aún más a las poblaciones rurales (contribuyendo así al reto demográfico), y pone en valor el papel de la gestión forestal de masas ya establecidas, como principal eje de acción en el futuro en materia de mitigación del cambio climático.

El artículo se publicó en Conecta Savia, y se puede ver integralmente aquí.

Del Campo, A.D., González-Sanchis, M., Garcia-Prats, A., Ceacero, C.J., Lull, C. 2019. The impact of adaptive forest management on water fluxes and growth dynamics in a water-limited low-biomass oak coppice. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 264: 266–282.

Marginal semi-arid forests in areas currently affected by climate change are a challenge to forest management, which has to focus on key functional traits that can effectively contribute to resistance under extreme drought. We studied the effects of thinning in a marginal forest by quantifying functional responses relating to growth, carbon and water fluxes. Two experimental plots were established, one thinned in 2012 and the other one left as a control. The environmental conditions varied substantially during the 4-year study period, although dry years predominated. There were signs of dieback in the control with a decreasing inter-annual trend in LAI, as opposed to the treated plots, where LAI by the end of the study almost reached pre-thinning levels. Sap flow and transpiration were greatly enhanced by the treatment, with thinned trees transpiring 22.4 l tree−1 day−1 in the growing season, about twice the control figures. The seasonal patterns of transpiration and soil moisture were uncoupled, indicating a contribution of deep groundwater to the former flux. In the control, limitations to water and carbon dynamics (canopy conductance) occurred at soil moisture values below 16%, whereas in the thinned trees these limitations appeared when soil moisture dropped below 10%. Overall, oaks’ transpiration was enhanced with thinning to the point that stand-water use surpassed that of the control by the second half of the study period, averaging 24% of gross rainfall in both plots. Soil evaporation increased from 12 to 20% of gross rainfall after treatment in the overall period. The treatment had a profound watering effect in this marginal forest, led by fewer trees using the same amount of water as those in the untreated overstocked plot. This research may provide guidelines for ecohydrology-oriented silviculture in stands experiencing tree encroachment and transformation into shrublands that are more prone to global change-induced disturbances.

Molina, A.J.; Navarro-Cerrillo, R.M.; Pérez-Romero, J.; Alejano, R.; Bellot, J.F.; Blanco, J.A.; Camarero, J.J.; Carrara, A.; Castillo, V.M.; Cervera, T.; González-Sanchis, M.; Hernández, A.; Imbert, J.B.; Jiménez, M.N.; Llorens, P.; Lucas-Borja, M.E.; Moreno, G.; Moreno-de las Heras, M.; Navarro, F. B.; Palacios, G.; Palero, N.; Ripoll, M.A.; Regüés, D.; Ruíz-Gómez, F.J.; Vilagrosa, A.; del Campo, A. D. 2021. SilvAdapt.Net: A Site-Based Network of Adaptive Forest Management Related to Climate Change in Spain. Forests, 12, 1807.

Adaptive forest management (AFM) is an urgent need because of the uncertainty regarding how changes in the climate will affect the structure, composition and function of forests during the next decades. Current research initiatives for the long-term monitoring of impacts of silviculture are scattered and not integrated into research networks, with the consequent losses of opportunities and capacity for action. To increase the scientific and practical impacts of these experiences, it is necessary to establish logical frameworks that harmonize the information and help us to define the most appropriate treatments. In this context, a number of research groups in Spain have produced research achievements and know-how during the last decades that can allow for the improvement in AFM. These groups address the issue of AFM from different fields, such as ecophysiology, ecohydrology and forest ecology, thus resulting in valuable but dispersed expertise. The main objective of this work is to introduce a comprehensive strategy aimed to study the implementation of AFM in Spain. As a first step, a network of 34 experimental sites managed by 14 different research groups is proposed and justified. As a second step, the most important AFM impacts on Mediterranean pines, as one of the most extended natural and planted forest types in Spain, are presented. Finally, open questions dealing with key aspects when attempting to implement an AFM framework are discussed. This study is expected to contribute to better outlining the procedures and steps needed to implement regional frameworks for AFM.

Bautista, I., Lidón, A., Lull, C., González-Sanchis, M., del Campo, A.D., 2021. Thinning decreased soil respiration differently in two dryland Mediterranean forests with contrasted soil temperature and humidity regimes. European Journal of Forest Research, 140, 1469–1485.

The effects of a thinning treatment on soil respiration (Rs) were analysed in two dryland forest types with a Mediterranean climate in east Spain: a dry subhumid holm oak forest (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota) in La Hunde; a semiarid postfire regenerated Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) forest in Sierra Calderona. Two twin plots were established at each site: one was thinned and the other was the control. Rs, soil humidity and temperature were measured regularly in the field at nine points per plot distributed into three blocks along the slope for 3 years at HU and for 2 years at CA after forest treatment. Soil heterotrophic activity was measured in laboratory on soil samples obtained bimonthly from December 2012 to June 2013 at the HU site. Seasonal Rs distribution gave low values in winter, began to increase in spring before lowering as soil dried in summer. This scenario indicates that with a semiarid climate, soil respiration is controlled by both soil humidity and soil temperature. Throughout the study period, the mean Rs value in the HU C plot was 13% higher than at HU T, and was 26% higher at CA C than the corresponding CA T plot value, being the differences significantly higher in control plots during active growing periods. Soil microclimatic variables explain the biggest proportion of variability for Rs: soil temperature explained 24.1% of total variability for Rs in the dry subhumid forest; soil humidity accounted for 24.6% of total variability for Rs in the semiarid forest. As Mediterranean climates are characterised by wide interannual variability, Rs showed considerable variability over the years, which can mask the effect caused by thinning treatment.

Del Campo, A.D., Segura-Orenga, G., Bautista, I., Ceacero, C.J. González-Sanchis, M., Molina, A.J., Hermoso, J., 2021. Assessing reforestation failure at the project scale: The margin for technical improvement under harsh conditions. A case study in a Mediterranean Dryland. Science of The Total Environment, 796, 148952.

Poor reforestation outcomes imply failure to fulfill program goals and tend to erode institutional willpower and political momentum towards reforestation efforts, affecting both public and private support. However, program improvement in real reforestation projects is challenging, due to the conjunction of many different variables that mutually interact and feed back on each other inextricably. This study develops a comprehensive assessment framework for reforestation programs, for which technical and environmental information is gathered and related to indicators of performance in both the short- and mid-term. This assessment, tested on a case study, aimed to provide reliable end-results for survival and growth, revealed pitfalls in successful plantation establishment and taught us how to improve plantation performance and what the margin for this improvement was. The selected project was carried out on harsh site conditions, with different species, cultivation treatments and contractors, and was affected by the driest year on record. Plantation mortality was high and increased progressively over time, particularly in the short-term when the rate was 53% (rising to 83% after ten years), showing high variation between sites and species (Pinus pinaster e Quercus faginea died more than 94% after ten years while Junipus phoenicea only 40%). All the hardwoods and the juniper showed lower growth rate after ten years (average stem volume < 40 cm3) than pines (stem volume > 470 cm3). Technical variables (project planning and execution) had a relatively important impact on plantation performance in the first two years (11–29%), but decreased with time, whilst environmental variables (site and meteorological) were more important ten years after planting (>50%). In the short-term, soil moisture and meteorology during the planting season were identified as key factors that triggered the effects of both technical decisions (planting date and planting technique) and other environmental variables on performance. In the design phase, some decisions related to zoning, species selection and cultural treatments were related to poor performance. The results provide practical information and guidelines about all potential drivers of plantation performance and contribute to identify those aspects more related to success of forest restoration in Mediterranean drylands.

Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M., Francisco J. Ruiz-Gómez, Jesús J. Camarero, Víctor Castillo, Gonzalo G. Barberá, Guillermo Palacios-Rodríguez, Francisco B. Navarro, Juan A. Blanco, Juan B. Imbert, Antonio M. Cachinero-Vivar, Antonio J. Molina, and Antonio D. del Campo. 2022. “Long-Term Carbon Sequestration in Pine Forests under Different Silvicultural and Climatic Regimes in Spain” Forests 13, no. 3: 450.

Proactive silviculture treatments (e.g., thinning) may increase C sequestration contributing to climate change mitigation, although, there are still questions about this effect in Mediterranean pine forests. The aim of this research was to quantify the storage of biomass and soil organic carbon in Pinus forests along a climatic gradient from North to South of the Iberian Peninsula. Nine experimental Pinus spp trials were selected along a latitudinal gradient from the pre-Pyrenees to southern Spain. At each location, a homogeneous area was used as the operational scale, and three thinning intensity treatments: unthinned or control (C), intermediate thinning (LT, removal of 30–40% of the initial basal area) and heavy thinning (HT, removal of 50–60%) were conducted. Growth per unit area (e.g., expressed as basal area increment-BAI), biomass, and Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) were measured as well as three sets of environmental variables (climate, soil water availability and soil chemical and physical characteristics). One-way ANOVA and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) were used to study the effect of thinning and environmental variables on C sequestration. Biomass and growth per unit area were higher in the control than in the thinning treatments, although differences were only significant for P. halepensis. Radial growth recovered after thinning in all species, but it was faster in the HT treatments. Soil organic carbon (SOC10, 0–10 cm depth) was higher in the HT treatments for P. halepensis e P. sylvestris, but not for P. nigra. SEM showed that Pinus stands of the studied species were beneficed by HT thinning, recovering their growth quickly. The resulting model explained 72% of the variation in SOC10 content, and 89% of the variation in silvicultural condition (basal area and density) after thinning. SOC10 was better related to climate than to silvicultural treatments. On the other hand, soil chemical and physical characteristics did not show significant influence over SOC10– Soil water availability was the latent variable with the highest influence over SOC10. This work is a new contribution that shows the need for forest managers to integrate silviculture and C sequestration in Mediterranean pine plantations.

González-Sanchis, M., Ruiz-Pérez, G., Del Campo, A. D., Garcia-Prats, A., Francés, F., & Lull, C. (2019). Managing low productive forests at catchment scale: considering water, biomass and fire risk to achieve economic feasibility. Journal of environmental management, 231, 653-665.

Semi-arid forests are water limited environments considered as low-productive. As a result, these forests usually end up unmanaged and abandoned, with the subsequent wild fire risk increasing, water yield decreasing and a general diminishing of the forest resilience. Hydrological-oriented silviculture could be a useful alternative that increases management possibilities by combining forest productivity and water yield. However, the slight water yield increase after forest management together with the low forest productivity, could make this option insufficient for semi-arid forests, and other goods and services should be included and quantified. In this sense, the present study analyzes to what extent semi-arid forest management for water yield results effective and profitable at catchment scale, and how does it improve when it is combined with other benefits such as biomass production and fire risk diminishing. To that end, the effects of forest management of semi-arid Aleppo pine post-fire regeneration stands are analyzed in terms of water yield (TETIS-VEG model), fire risk (KDBY index and FARSITE) and biomass production, at catchment scale. Regarding to water yield, the results confirmed the slight effect of forest management on its increase (average increase of 0.27 ± 0.29 mm yr−1), at the same time that highlighted the role of the upper catchment area as an important water contributor. The management produced 4161.6 Mg of biomass, and decreased in 27±17% and 25.6 ± 14.1% the fire risk and fire propagation, respectively. Finally, a simple economic estimation of the management profitability is carried out by means of comparing the Benefit/Cost ratio of the managed and unmanaged scenarios. Both scenarios were always above the unity when just considering water as benefit, although the unmanaged scenario produced a higher ratio, as no management costs are expended. Contrarily, when wildfire was also included into the evaluation, the situation is overturned for wildfires equal or higher than 1.5 day duration, where the forest management is shown as the most convenient alternative.

Del Campo, A. D., González-Sanchis, M., Molina, A. J., García-Prats, A., Ceacero, C. J., & Bautista, I. (2019). Effectiveness of water-oriented thinning in two semiarid forests: The redistribution of increased net rainfall into soil water, drainage and runoff. Forest Ecology and Management, 438, 163-175.

Water is the key element that modulates the provision of goods and services together with global/climate stressors affecting semiarid forests. In this sense, there is a need to improve the understanding and quantification of forest and water relationships as affected by forest management. This work addresses this issue by comparing net rainfall (Pn) redistribution into different belowground hydrological processes (BHP) in two forest types after a thinning treatment: a holm oak coppice (HU) and a post-fire Aleppo pine regeneration (CAL). The relative contribution (RI) of forest structure, antecedent soil moisture (θst), rainfall and meteorological conditions on the BHP was assessed through boosted regression trees models. In both sites, the RI of the forest structure itself was limited (<10%). However, θst, which clearly increased significantly with thinning, received an average RI of 29%. Surface and subsurface lateral flows showed values <1% of gross rainfall (Pg) in either site and were not significantly affected by thinning. On the other hand, soil moisture and drainage were affected by the thinning treatment, although with different extent depending on the site: in the drier site (CAL), the increased Pn in the thinning was mainly allocated into increased soil water content, with very limited improvement in drainage (<10 mm/year); in contrast, in the wetter continental site of HU, drainage to deeper soil layers was the most remarkable effect of thinning (50 mm/year higher than in control), given the higher θst and hence the lower soil water storage available. Thinning also improved the response of BHP during drought, making these processes more elastic and less vulnerable to climatic extremes. The results presented here complement those previously reported on rainfall partitioning in these sites and all together provide a comprehensive understanding of the short-term effect (3–4 years) of water-oriented silviculture in Quercus ilex and Pinus halepensis low-biomass semiarid forests. Questions such as the long-term effects of thinning remain open for these ecosystems.

Del Campo, A. D., Segura-Orenga, G., Ceacero, C. J., González-Sanchis, M., Molina, A. J., Reyna, S., & Hermoso, J. (2020). Reforesting drylands under novel climates with extreme drought filters: The importance of trait-based species selection. Forest Ecology and Management, 467, 118156.

Having regard to the substantial world-scale forest restoration needs, the efforts must be done efficiently, which necessarily forces to consider the adaptation of new forests to the extremes arising from climate change. In this context, species selection strategies should enhance long-term functional resilience in the face of novel environmental scenarios. The use of plant functional traits for selecting species under climate change might be advantageous over more traditional taxon-based criteria as an adaptive forestry management strategy. In this work, we studied which functional traits (across species) have played a relevant role on field performance and fitness in a multi-species reforestation trial in a Mediterranean dryland affected by an extreme drought event. Different traits both from the individual plant and from the species were studied in seven species both at the short and the mid-term (10 years). The relative importance (RI) or contribution of the different traits to plantation performance was assessed through boosted regression tree models. The results showed that, under favorable climatic conditions, mean survival was above 70% and individual plant functional traits held up to 60% of importance on such value. The impact of species functional traits was low in this case (less than 18%) pointing out that all the species were performing within their niche at this point. However, after the driest year on record, the role of the latter on survival rose up to 53% of RI and survival sharply decreased to 33%, with some species showing negligible survival rate (<10%). The dynamic response of stomata and xylem resistance to cavitation, together with rooting depth, were the main traits (species traits) identified in successful performance facing the extreme environmental factors. Thus, trait-oriented approach to select species represent a key tool in the implementation of new and successful forest restoration strategies to design resistant and resilient ecosystems adapted to the climate change challenges.

Vale, C. G., & Brito, J. C. (2015). Desert-adapted species are vulnerable to climate change: Insights from the warmest region on Earth. Global Ecology and Conservation, 4, 369-379.

Climate change is eroding biodiversity and conservation efforts have focused on species’ potential responses to those changes. Biological traits associated with sensitivity and adaptive capacities may contribute in identifying a species vulnerability to climate change. Desert-living species could be particularly vulnerable to climate change as they may already live at their physiological limits. This work aims to identify functional groups in Sahara-Sahel endemics, to determine their spatial distribution and to evaluate how the predicted magnitude and velocity of climate change in the region might affect them. We collated biological traits data for all Sahara-Sahel endemics. We then summarized the functional strategy of each species into functional groups with different sensitivities and adaptive capacities to climate change. Future climate scenarios were reclassified to identify areas where predicted temperature and precipitation approach the physiological limits of each group. We calculated the velocity of temperature and precipitation change as the ratio of the temporal gradient to the spatial gradient. Specific magnitudes and velocities of environmental change threaten our seven function groups differently according to their level of exposure and geographical distributions. Groups are more exposed to precipitation than to temperature changes. The more exposed functional groups lived mostly in flat areas, where the predicted magnitude and velocities of change were also the highest. Some functional groups with high adaptive capacities (e.g. volant species) may be able to colonize distinct areas. Other groups with low sensitivity and adaptive capacity (e.g.: ectotherms with small home ranges) may be vulnerable to climate change. Different biological traits contributed to the extent to which climate change harms species. The desert-adapted species may be the most vulnerable ones. The vulnerability patterns of Sahara-Sahel functional groups provide indications of combinations of biological traits and biodiversity’s exposure to climate change in other warm deserts of the world.